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QUESTIONS & ANSWERS

General

I can not change printer

For some Windows operation system, you can't change printer within program. Please email us the problem with your company information. We will give you a new update to fix the problem.

How to make a PDF file?

You need to install PDF writer such as Adobe PDFwriter (or CurePDF, DoPDF). It is installed in your computer as one of your printers. To print PDF file, you need to do followings:

1. Close the program. 1:20 PM 1/26/2015

2. In Windows, click Start; go to Setup, Printers & Devices

3. Find the PDF writer you installed before, make it as default printer. Close the panel.

4. Open the program again. Then send to printer. The PDF write will ask you where to save the file. Input the path to save the PDF file.

Input Error

If you are in a country other than US, you may be using decimal symbol "," instead of ".". Our software must use "." for decimal symbol.

You need got to Windows Control panel, Open "Regional and Language Options" Select Number Tab, change Decimal symbol from "," to "."

Buttons in input screen shifted or not aligned

For some computers, the buttons may not be aligned with column in the table. You may do followings to improve it:

1. Go to Windows Control Panel,

2. Open Display,

3. Try different Screen resolutions and Fonts size. Most of time, you can fix the problem.

How do I uninstall?

Civiltech software does not modify the Windows Registry or hide files across your hard drive. To uninstall our software:

  • Open up Windows Explorer
  • Navigate to the folder you installed the software (e.g. C:\Shoring8)
  • Delete this folder
  • In the Start menu, under Programs, right-click on the Civiltech folder and select Delete

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SHORINGSUITE

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How the program convert Nspt to other soil parameters?

The program used the tables in Section 8.5 of the manual from Nspt to get the other soil parameters.

Does Nspt need to be corrected?

Yes. You need to input corrected SPT such as N1. If you only have field SPT, it is OK to use them directly, because the conversion is based on statistic data. It is not so accurate. Under the slide ruler, the N value only up to 60. How to account for N > 60. References only can find correlations between N and phi, C, unit weight up to N=60, If N>60, Users can directly input phi, C, and unit weigh based on lab testing or local experiences. Actual, N above 60 does not have too much meaning (SPT method is back 70 year old and very rough). If rock or gravel are encountered. One gravel randomly encountered can increasing N significantly. Lab test such as Unconfined compress test provides more meaning full data.

How to apply Load Factors and Factor of Safty?

In Surcharge module, apply Load Factor in Page A, Item 4.

In Earthprs module, apply Load Factor in Page E, Item 4-7.

In Shoring module, apply Load Factor in Page B, Item 1.

Please note, the Load Factor in Shoring is duplicated with Load Factor in Earthprs. You only apply it in one place. Please do not apply it twice.

There is also a Factor of Safety in Shoring module in Page B, Item 2. For templar wall, FS =1 to 1.3 is recommended. For permanent wall, 1.5 is recommended.

How can seismic condition be considered in analysis?

In Earthpres module, input acceleration form local building code. Earthquake pressure is based on Mononobe-Okabe method.

How to handle a force at wall top?

You have to way to input. 1. Input a force in Page C, Item 5 of Shoring. 2. Apply a pressure equals to the force in Page B, Item 1. For example, Z1=0', Z2=1', P1=1ksf, P2=1ksf, Spacing = 1' (for sheet pile, in Page A, Item 4). It is equal to a force 1 kip per foot. If Spacing = 8' (for soldier pile), the force will be 8 kip for each pile. For a force is toward the wall, input P1, P2 negative value.

How to input Ms (item 12 in Page D, Option page, Shoring)?

Please see Page 7.2-103 of DM7 for Ms. Using Ms is not recommended. If you do not know how to use Ms, Please do not apply Ms. Ms is for someone with extensive shoring experiences. It needs a lot of engineering experiences and judgment. Improperly using Ms causes failure in shoring

How to handle Rock at bottom?

You need to use at least one brace. For cantilever wall, the shoring system is not stable. You can handle the case with two options: 1. Select Option 3 in Item 9, 10, 11 in Page D. Input a fixed embedment and friction between rock and pile tip. 2. Directly input a large passive resistance for rock layer in Page B, Item 2. Typical value: Z1 -Top of rock, Z2 -bottom of rock, P1=P2 = 3ksf to 5 ksf.

Does the program apply Rowe Reduction?

No Rowe Reduction applied. You can apply it after program gives maximum moment,

If the existing wall has embedment less than program required minimum embedment?

For cantilever wall, the fixed embedment should be longer than the required minimum embedment. Otherwise, the wall is not stable. If the existing wall has been there for a long time, the active pressure inputted may be too large. You can reduce the active pressure by input a factor <1 in Item 1, Page B.

If the wall has embedment more than program required minimum embedment?

If you have fixed embedment longer than required minimum embedment, the program only uses the minimum embedment. Because the program is based on the passive pressure you inputted. you can redistribute the passive pressure by inputting a FS > 1 in Item 2 of Page B. The passive pressure will be redistributed and the embedment increases. Increasing the FS until the calculated minimum embedment = fixed embedment.

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ALLPILE

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Can I use Allpile to design shoring wall?

No! You need to use shoring software such as our ShoringSuite program for shoring wall. Allpile is for pile in symmetrical condition surrounded by soils. Shroing is for excavation support. Above excavation base, half section of pile is to retain soils and another half section of pile is opened to air without soils. Below base, it is symmetrical surrounded by soil. Allpile uses soil-structural interactive method. The soil pressure is mobilized by pile pushing. More pile deflection toward soils, more pressure is mobilized. The pressures are calculated by program based on soil-structural interaction. There is no concept of active and passive pressure. The pressure diagram of Allpile is different from shoring pressure diagram; therefore, the shear and moment are different. Shoring uses equilibrium method. All active pressure and passive pressure are pre-defined and inputted regardless pile deflection. Pressures are increased with depth at constant ratio (so called equivalent fluid density)
The loading for Allpile is mainly acting on pile top as concentrated force (Vertical and lateral loads). The loading for Shoring is mainly from soil pressures and surcharge above excavation base as distributed pressures. The calculated moment and deflection may be significant different between the two programs. For example, at excavation base, based on shoring method, the passive pressure starts from zero (it increasing with ratio of Kp*gamma). In Allpile, The pressure has maximum value because the deflection is large at the base. You may input active pressure above base. But you cannot control passive pressure below base. Shoring program uses arching for passive pressure. Allpile does not allow to input arching.

How the program convert Nspt to other soil parameters?

The program used Tables 7-8 in page 99 from Nspt to get the other soil parameters.

Does Nspt need to be corrected?

Yes. You need to input corrected SPT such as N1. If you only have field SPT, it is OK to use them directly, because Tables 7-8 are based on statistic data. It is not so accurate.

How does Allpile calculate the batted pile?

1. Convert the force from perpendicular to ground to perpendicular to pile. 2. Use sloping ground equation. Page 357, PDF file C of com624 manual. 3. Convert calculated deflection from perpendicular to pile to perpendicular to ground

Why I get less or equal deflection for negative batted Pile?

If you rotate the profile (drawing) count-clockwise to a degree equal to better angle, the pile becomes a vertical pile and the ground surface is up-sloped. The sloped ground surface should increase the lateral resistance of ground. However, there is not too many studies of this situation, some exports suggest ignoring the effect of the up-slope. The lateral load is parallel to ground. It has two components. One is a lateral load perpendicular to pile. One is an axial load as a vertical load to pile. The lateral load (perpendicular to pile) causes perpendicular deflection to pile. The vertical load (axial load) causes uplift along pile axis. Since uplift movement is not reliable, it is ignored in the calculation. Only perpendicular deflection converted to horizontal deflection. Therefore, The final deflection is equal to a vertical pile.

How to apply Load Factors?

Allpile is calculation and analysis program. It can be used for any code and load factors. You can apply factors in loading before input the program. You also can apply factors in ultimate results after running the program. You can apply LRFD load factors in Page F, Table 4, Raw 4.

Can Allpile anylize irregular pile group

Allpile is only for symmetrical layout with total pile in even number. The spacing should be the same in one direction. X and Y spacing can be different. If you have two types of piles, for example, batted piles in different direction. You can run two analyses, then average the results. If you have 7 piles, you can run two cases: 6 piles and 8 piles then average the results.

How can seismic condition be considered in lateral analysis?

Seismic condition can be considered in lateral analysis in page D. Input number of cyclic from 2 to 50 How to apply cyclic loading? For cyclic loading, Please see Manual Com624B.pdf, page 289. Unfortunately, there is not too many information about cyclic loading in the manual of Com624. There are two ways to consider the pile under cyclic loading: 1. Input cyclic loading and normal soil strength. Our experience is No. of cyclic =50 for seismic condition. 2. Input reduced soil strength and static loading.

Can users define the bearing capacity instead of the program calculated ones?

Users can define the bearing capacity in page C. Please click Item 2, add a tip section. Then open the pile section screen and input the bearing capacity in Item 7. Users can also easily set bearing capacity to zero in page F, Item 2. What are the differences between Drilled Shafts and SHAFT (US FHWA methods) in pile type? Drilled Shafts have two types: One type is for diameters less than 24 inches; the other is for diameters larger than 24 inches. The calculation methods are the same for both types, but the parameters are different. Please review the parameters in Setup screen. SHAFT uses calculation methods recommended by US FHWA. It mainly uses SPT for bearing capacity. Some side resistances are ignored in exclusion zone. SHAFT is a more conservative method.

How many layers of soil can I input?

Up to 10 layers of soil. If you have more than 10 layers of soil, you need to combine two or three similar layers to one layer. Here are some examples: If you have the following layers:2m thick with SPT=5, 3m thick with SPT=12, 1m thick with SPT=7.You can combine them into one layer: 6m thick with SPT=(5x2+12x3+7x1)/6=8.8

Can Allpile design the reinforcement?

No. You need to estimate the reinforcement first and input to the program, and then the program calculate the capacity of pile and the moment in the pile. Using the Max. Moment, you can design the reinforcement based on concrete design code. Sometime, you may need concrete design software. There are some software can help you. 1. Enercalc http://www.enercalc.com/products.html 2. PCA software http://www.structurepoint.org/soft/soft_profile.asp?l_family_id=30

What is Open End Pile with Plugged Conditions?

For diving pile, users can select between open-end pile and close-end pile in Page A, Item 1. In open-end pile program uses effective area (A' - the area of steel tube) for tip resistance calculation. In close-end pile, program uses total gross area (At - the area base on outside diameter) for tip resistance calculation. In both types, you always can add a tip section (Page C, Item 2), and then specify a tip area you want in following steps:
1. Select open-end pile or close-end pile in Page A, Item 1. 2. Create a tip section in Page C, Item 2. Input a tip area (Here we call it as A_plug). You need estimate A_plug based on soil type, local experience and knowledge of piles. A_plug always falls between A and A' If pile is fully plugged, use A_plug=At If pile is not plugged, use A_plug=A' The easy way is using A_plug=(A+A')/2 If it is more plug and more friction inside, A_plug close to At. If it is less plug and less friction inside, A_plug close to A'. The side resistance calculation outside pile is the same between two types of piles.

Why the tip resistance is diffrent from my hand calulation?

You need to set Input Page F, Item 3 to zero.

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LIQUEFYPRO

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What should I input if the water table is above ground surface?

If the water table is above the ground surface, such as an offshore situation, you can assume the water table is at ground surface and input water table at zero. Therefore, the total vertical overburden stress and hydraulic pressure start at zero from the ground surface. The total stress term in the CSR equation comes from the need to represent the shear stress acting at the depth of interest. Since the shear stress comes from the inertia of the soil column above that depth, we use the total stress (which implies that the water within the soil moves with the soil). When there is free water above the soil surface (e.g., at an offshore site), that water will not move with the soil, so its weight should not be included in the inertial force that goes into the CSR.

Does dry sand settle due to an earthquake?

Yes, the program provides a calculation for settlement of dry sand (see Example 5). The results match very well with the results in Tokimatsu & Seed, ASCE GE, Vol. 113 # 8 Aug. 1987.

How deep should you input in the program for liquefaction analysis?

Traditionally, a depth of 50 feet (about 15 m) has been used as depth of analysis for evaluation of liquefaction. Experience has shown that the 50-foot depth is adequate for most cases, but there may be situations where this depth is not sufficiently deep. The program can handle 1200 rows of data. If each row represents 1 inch of depth, you can input up to 100 feet of data.

Does the clay layer liquefy? How do you deal with a clay layer in the program?

Generally clay with fines = 100% does not liquefy. However, clayey soils do liquefy in certain conditions. According to the Chinese experience, potentially liquefiable clayey soils need to meet all of the following characteristics (Seed et al., 1983):
Percent finer than 0.005 mm < 15 Liquid Limit (LL) < 35 Water content > 0.9 x LL
If the soil has these characteristics (and plot above the A-Line for the fines fraction to be classified as clayey), cyclic laboratory tests may be required to evaluate their liquefaction potential. If clayey sands are encountered in the field, laboratory tests such as grain size, Atterberg Limits, and moisture content may be required. In the case where the soil meets the Chinese criteria, the need for laboratory cyclic tests may be determined on a case-by-case basis.
The program does not know whether a soil layer is no-liquefiable clayey soils. It will conduct analysis on any soil layer and possible to get liquefaction potential on this soil, unless the users tell the program that this soil is not liquefiable clayey soils. If users thinks a layer is not liquefiable, the users should input 101(%) in fines for this layer on the data input table (Figure 3.1). It will let the program to realize that this layer is not liquefiable.

How does the program handle fines correction?

The program provides four options for fines correction in the calculation on the Advanced page (see Figure 3.6):
  • Option 1. No fines correction for SPT
  • Option 2. Idriss/Seed method
  • Option 3. Stark & Olsen method as described in Figure 4.4
  • Option 4. Modified Stark & Olsen method. Instead of keeping the correction factor constant, after FC reaches 35 (Figure 4.4) this method continues the curve to FC = 100.
Based on corrections in Figure 4.4, SPT N-value only increases up to 7 at fines = 35% and keeps 7 at fines = 100%. Therefore, A soil layer with fines = 100 in calculation is possible to be liquefiable. If users think a layer is not liquefiable, then the users should input 101(%) in fines content for this layer (Figure 3.1). Also refer to Question 8 and 9.

What are flow slides?

(Source of answer: SP117) Flow failures are clearly the most catastrophic form of ground failure that may be triggered when liquefaction occurs. These large translational or rotational flow failures are mobilized by existing static stresses when average shear stresses on potential failure surfaces are less than average shear strengths on these surfaces. The strengths of liquefied soil zones on these surfaces reduce to values equal to the post liquefaction residual strength. The determination of the latter strengths for use in static stability analyses is very inexact, and consensus as to the most appropriate approach has not been reached to date.

Although steady state undrained shear strength concepts based on laboratory tests have been used to estimate post liquefaction residual strengths (Poulos et al., 1985, Kramer 1996), due to the difficulties of test interpretation and corrections for sample disturbance, the empirical approach based on correlation between SPT blow counts and apparent residual strength back-calculated from observed flow slides is recommended for practical use. The program does not provide flow slides analysis in the current version.

What are lateral spreads?

(Source of answer: SP117) Whereas the potential for flow slides may exist at a building site, the degradation in undrained shear resistance arising from liquefaction may lead to limited lateral spreads (of the order of feet or less) induced by earthquake inertial loading. Such spreads can occur on gently sloping ground or where nearby drainage or stream channels can lead to static shear stress biases on essentially horizontal ground (Youd, 1995).

At larger cyclic shear strains, the effects of dilation may significantly increase post liquefaction undrained shear resistance, as shown in Figure 7.9. However, incremental permanent deformations will still accumulate during portions of the earthquake load cycles when low residual resistance is available. Such low resistance will continue even while large permanent shear deformations accumulate through a racheting effect. Such effects have recently been demonstrated in centrifuge tests to study liquefaction that induced lateral spreads, as described by Balakrishnan et al. (1998). Once earthquake loading has ceased, the effects of dilation under static loading can mitigate the potential for a flow slide.

Although it is clear from past earthquakes that damage to structures can be severe if permanent ground displacements of the order of several feet occur, during the Northridge earthquake significant damage to building structures (floor slab and wall cracks) occurred with less than 1 foot of lateral spread. Consequently, the determination of lateral spread potential, an assessment of its likely magnitude, and the development of appropriate mitigation, need to be addressed as part of the hazard assessment process.

The complexities of post-liquefaction behavior of soils noted above, coupled with the additional complexities of potential pore water pressure redistribution effects and the nature of earthquake loading on the sliding mass, cause significant difficulties in providing specific guidelines for lateral spread evaluation. The program does not provide lateral spreads analysis in the current version.

If I do not know Fines Content?

For CPT test, Modify Robertson not only makes Fines correction based on the qc and fc, but also calculate the Fines Content. The Fines correction is used for both liquefaction as well as settlement analysis. You do not input Fines content

What are the advantages of Modified Robertson Method?

For CPT test, Seed and Suzuki methods need users to input fines. Otherwise the program assume the soils are clean sand with Fines=0%. Users also need select Correction methods separately for Liquefaction and Settlement.
For SPT and BPT, Users have to input Fines. Otherwise the program assume the soils are clean sand with Fines=0%. Users also need select Correction methods separately for Liquefaction and Settlement.
For CPT test, Robertson will make Fines correction based on the qc and fc. The Fines correction is used for both liquefaction as well as settlement analysis. You do not input Fines content.
For CPT test, Modify Robertson not only makes Fines correction based on the qc and fc, but also calculate the Fines Content. The Fines correction is used for both liquefaction as well as settlement analysis. You do not input Fines content
If you have Fines information, you can input. But Robertson and Modify Robertson will ignore inputted Fines. Other methods and SPT will use the inputted Fines.
You can input calculated Fines from Modify Robertson, then input Fines back and let other methods to use the data. Modify Robertson will ignore the inputted data.